Teodoro Bottiglieri Ph.D.

Posted May 21st 2021

Choline and Folic Acid in Diets Consumed during Pregnancy Interact to Program Food Intake and Metabolic Regulation of Male Wistar Rat Offspring.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Hammoud, R., Pannia, E., Kubant, R., Wasek, B., Bottiglieri, T., Malysheva, O.V., Caudill, M.A. and Anderson, G.H. (2021). “Choline and Folic Acid in Diets Consumed during Pregnancy Interact to Program Food Intake and Metabolic Regulation of Male Wistar Rat Offspring.” J Nutr 151(4): 857-865.

Full text of this article.

BACKGROUND: North American women consume high folic acid (FA), but most are not meeting the adequate intakes for choline. High-FA gestational diets induce an obesogenic phenotype in rat offspring. It is unclear if imbalances between FA and other methyl-nutrients (i.e., choline) account for these effects. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the interaction of choline and FA in gestational diets on food intake, body weight, one-carbon metabolism, and hypothalamic gene expression in male Wistar rat offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet with recommended choline and FA [RCRF; 1-fold, control] or high (5-fold) FA with choline at 0.5-fold [low choline and high folic acid (LCHF)], 1-fold [recommended choline and high folic acid (RCHF)], or 2.5-fold [high choline and high folic acid (HCHF)]. Male offspring were weaned to an RCRF diet for 20 wk. Food intake, weight gain, plasma energy-regulatory hormones, brain and plasma one-carbon metabolites, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in pup hypothalamuses were assessed. RESULTS: Adult offspring from LCHF and RCHF, but not HCHF, gestational diets had 10% higher food intake and weight gain than controls (P < 0.01). HCHF newborn pups had lower plasma insulin and leptin compared with LCHF and RCHF pups (P < 0.05), respectively. Pup brain choline (P < 0.05) and betaine (P < 0.01) were 22-33% higher in HCHF pups compared with LCHF pups; methionine was ∼23% lower after all high FA diets compared with RCRF (P < 0.01). LCHF adult offspring had lower brain choline (P < 0.05) than all groups and lower plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (P < 0.05) than RCRF and RCHF groups. HCHF adult offspring had lower plasma cystathionine (P < 0.05) than LCHF adult offspring and lower homocysteine (P < 0.01) than RCHF and RCRF adult offspring. RNA-seq identified 144 differentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus of HCHF newborns compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Increased choline in gestational diets modified the programming effects of high FA on long-term food intake regulation, plasma energy-regulatory hormones, one-carbon metabolism, and hypothalamic gene expression in male Wistar rat offspring, emphasizing a need for more attention to the choline and FA balance in maternal diets.


Posted March 16th 2021

Choline and Folic Acid in Diets Consumed during Pregnancy Interact to Program Food Intake and Metabolic Regulation of Male Wistar Rat Offspring.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Hammoud, R., Pannia, E., Kubant, R., Wasek, B., Bottiglieri, T., Malysheva, O.V., Caudill, M.A. and Anderson, G.H. (2021). “Choline and Folic Acid in Diets Consumed during Pregnancy Interact to Program Food Intake and Metabolic Regulation of Male Wistar Rat Offspring.” J Nutr Feb 9;nxaa419. [Epub ahead of print].

Full text of this article.

BACKGROUND: North American women consume high folic acid (FA), but most are not meeting the adequate intakes for choline. High-FA gestational diets induce an obesogenic phenotype in rat offspring. It is unclear if imbalances between FA and other methyl-nutrients (i.e., choline) account for these effects. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the interaction of choline and FA in gestational diets on food intake, body weight, one-carbon metabolism, and hypothalamic gene expression in male Wistar rat offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet with recommended choline and FA [RCRF; 1-fold, control] or high (5-fold) FA with choline at 0.5-fold [low choline and high folic acid (LCHF)], 1-fold [recommended choline and high folic acid (RCHF)], or 2.5-fold [high choline and high folic acid (HCHF)]. Male offspring were weaned to an RCRF diet for 20 wk. Food intake, weight gain, plasma energy-regulatory hormones, brain and plasma one-carbon metabolites, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in pup hypothalamuses were assessed. RESULTS: Adult offspring from LCHF and RCHF, but not HCHF, gestational diets had 10% higher food intake and weight gain than controls (P < 0.01). HCHF newborn pups had lower plasma insulin and leptin compared with LCHF and RCHF pups (P < 0.05), respectively. Pup brain choline (P < 0.05) and betaine (P < 0.01) were 22-33% higher in HCHF pups compared with LCHF pups; methionine was ∼23% lower after all high FA diets compared with RCRF (P < 0.01). LCHF adult offspring had lower brain choline (P < 0.05) than all groups and lower plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (P < 0.05) than RCRF and RCHF groups. HCHF adult offspring had lower plasma cystathionine (P < 0.05) than LCHF adult offspring and lower homocysteine (P < 0.01) than RCHF and RCRF adult offspring. RNA-seq identified 144 differentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus of HCHF newborns compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Increased choline in gestational diets modified the programming effects of high FA on long-term food intake regulation, plasma energy-regulatory hormones, one-carbon metabolism, and hypothalamic gene expression in male Wistar rat offspring, emphasizing a need for more attention to the choline and FA balance in maternal diets.


Posted March 2nd 2021

Preferential accumulation of the active S-(+) isomer in murine retina highlights novel mechanisms of vigabatrin-associated retinal toxicity.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Walters, D.C., Jansen, E.E.W., Salomons, G.S., Arning, E., Ashcraft, P., Bottiglieri, T., Roullet, J.B. and Gibson, K.M. (2021). “Preferential accumulation of the active S-(+) isomer in murine retina highlights novel mechanisms of vigabatrin-associated retinal toxicity.” Epilepsy Res 170: 106536.

Full text of this article.

((S)-(+)/(R)-(-)) vigabatrin (Sabril(R); γ-vinyl GABA), an antiepileptic irreversibly inactivating GABA-transaminase, was administered to male C57Bl6 J mice via continuous infusion (0, 40, 80 mg/kg/d) for 12 days. Our study design pooled retina, eye (minus retina), whole brain and plasma from n = 24 animals for each dose to provide n = 8 triplicates per treatment group. Hypothesizing that (S)-(+) VGB (active isomer) would preferentially accumulate in retina, we determined VGB isomers, comprehensive amino acids, and pharmacokinetic parameters. In brain, eye and plasma, the ((S)-(+)/(R)-(-)) ratio varied from 0.73 to 1.29 and 13.3 in retina, accompanied by a partition coefficient (tissue/plasma, ((S)-(+);(R)-(-))) of 5.8;0.34, 0.63;0.49, and 0.51;0.34 in retina, eye and brain, respectively. Racemic VGB (nmol/g; plasma, nmol/mL, range of means for dose) content was: retina, 25-36; eye (minus retina), 4.8-8.0; brain, 3.1-6.8 and plasma, 8.7-14.9. GABA tissue content (nmol/g) was 1246-3335, 18-64 and 2615-3200 as a function of VGB dose for retina, eye (minus retina) and brain, respectively. The retinal glial cell toxin 2-aminoadipic acid also increased with VGB dose (76-96 nmol/g). Partitioning of active (S)-(+) VGB to retina suggests the involvement of a stereospecific transporter, the identification of which could reveal new therapeutic paradigms that might mitigate VGB’s well-known retinal toxicity and expand its clinical utility.


Posted January 15th 2021

Preferential accumulation of the active S-(+) isomer in murine retina highlights novel mechanisms of vigabatrin-associated retinal toxicity.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Walters, D.C., Jansen, E.E.W., Salomons, G.S., Arning, E., Ashcraft, P., Bottiglieri, T., Roullet, J.B. and Gibson, K.M. (2020). “Preferential accumulation of the active S-(+) isomer in murine retina highlights novel mechanisms of vigabatrin-associated retinal toxicity.” Epilepsy Res Dec 29;170:106536. [Epub ahead of print].

Full text of this article.

((S)-(+)/(R)-(-)) vigabatrin (Sabril(R); γ-vinyl GABA), an antiepileptic irreversibly inactivating GABA-transaminase, was administered to male C57Bl6 J mice via continuous infusion (0, 40, 80 mg/kg/d) for 12 days. Our study design pooled retina, eye (minus retina), whole brain and plasma from n = 24 animals for each dose to provide n = 8 triplicates per treatment group. Hypothesizing that (S)-(+) VGB (active isomer) would preferentially accumulate in retina, we determined VGB isomers, comprehensive amino acids, and pharmacokinetic parameters. In brain, eye and plasma, the ((S)-(+)/(R)-(-)) ratio varied from 0.73 to 1.29 and 13.3 in retina, accompanied by a partition coefficient (tissue/plasma, ((S)-(+);(R)-(-))) of 5.8;0.34, 0.63;0.49, and 0.51;0.34 in retina, eye and brain, respectively. Racemic VGB (nmol/g; plasma, nmol/mL, range of means for dose) content was: retina, 25-36; eye (minus retina), 4.8-8.0; brain, 3.1-6.8 and plasma, 8.7-14.9. GABA tissue content (nmol/g) was 1246-3335, 18-64 and 2615-3200 as a function of VGB dose for retina, eye (minus retina) and brain, respectively. The retinal glial cell toxin 2-aminoadipic acid also increased with VGB dose (76-96 nmol/g). Partitioning of active (S)-(+) VGB to retina suggests the involvement of a stereospecific transporter, the identification of which could reveal new therapeutic paradigms that might mitigate VGB’s well-known retinal toxicity and expand its clinical utility.


Posted January 15th 2021

[6S]-5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid and Folic Acid Pregnancy Diets Differentially Program Metabolic Phenotype and Hypothalamic Gene Expression of Wistar Rat Dams Post-Birth.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Teodoro Bottiglieri, Ph.D.

Pannia, E., Hammoud, R., Simonian, R., Arning, E., Ashcraft, P., Wasek, B., Bottiglieri, T., Pausova, Z., Kubant, R. and Anderson, G.H. (2020). “[6S]-5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid and Folic Acid Pregnancy Diets Differentially Program Metabolic Phenotype and Hypothalamic Gene Expression of Wistar Rat Dams Post-Birth.” Nutrients 13(1).

Full text of this article.

[6S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (MTHF) is a proposed replacement for folic acid (FA) in diets and prenatal supplements. This study compared the effects of these two forms on maternal metabolism and hypothalamic gene expression. Pregnant Wistar rats received an AIN-93G diet with recommended FA (1X, 2 mg/kg, control), 5X-FA or equimolar levels of MTHF. During lactation they received the control diet and then a high fat diet for 19-weeks post-weaning. Body weight, adiposity, food intake, energy expenditure, plasma hormones, folate, and 1-carbon metabolites were measured. RNA-sequencing of the hypothalamus was conducted at parturition. Weight-loss from weaning to 1-week post-weaning was less in dams fed either form of the 5X vs. 1X folate diets, but final weight-gain was higher in 5X-MTHF vs. 5X-FA dams. Both doses of the MTHF diets led to 8% higher food intake and associated with lower plasma leptin at parturition, but higher leptin at 19-weeks and insulin resistance at 1-week post-weaning. RNA-sequencing revealed 279 differentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus in 5X-MTHF vs. 5X-FA dams. These findings indicate that MTHF and FA differ in their programing effects on maternal phenotype, and a potential adverse role of either form when given at the higher doses.