Risk Factors for Posttransplantation Mortality in Recipients With Grade 3 Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: Analysis of a North American Consortium.
Robert Rahimi, M.D.
Sundaram, V., Patel, S., Shetty, K., Lindenmeyer, C. C., Rahimi, R. S., Flocco, G., Al-Attar, A., Karvellas, C. J., Challa, S., Maddur, H., Jou, J. H., Kriss, M., Stein, L. L., Xiao, A. H., Vyhmeister, R. H., Green, E. W., Campbell, B., Cranford, W., Mahmud, N. and Fortune, B. E. (2022). “Risk Factors for Posttransplantation Mortality in Recipients With Grade 3 Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: Analysis of a North American Consortium.” Liver Transpl.
Although liver transplantation (LT) yields survival benefit for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure grade 3 (ACLF-3), knowledge gaps remain regarding risk factors for post-LT mortality. We retrospectively reviewed data from 10 centers in the United States and Canada for patients transplanted between 2018 and 2019 and who required care in the intensive care unit prior to LT. ACLF was identified using the European Association for the Study of the Liver-Chronic Liver Failure (EASL-CLIF) criteria. A total of 318 patients were studied, of whom 106 (33.3%) had no ACLF, 61 (19.1%) had ACLF-1, 74 (23.2%) had ACLF-2, and 77 (24.2%) had ACLF-3 at transplantation. Survival probability 1 year after LT was significantly higher in patients without ACLF (94.3%) compared with patients with ACLF (87.3%; P = 0.02), but similar between ACLF-1 (88.5%), ACLF-2 (87.8%), and ACLF-3 (85.7%; P = 0.26). Recipients with ACLF-3 and circulatory failure (n = 29) had similar 1-year post-LT survival (82.3%) compared with patients with ACLF-3 without circulatory failure (89.6%; P = 0.32), including those requiring multiple vasopressors. For patients transplanted with ACLF-3 including respiratory failure (n = 20), there was a trend toward significantly lower post-LT survival (P = 0.07) among those with respiratory failure (74.1%) compared with those without (91.0%). The presence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) at LT for patients with ACLF-3 (n = 15), however, yielded significantly lower survival (91.9% versus 57.1%; P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that PVT was significantly associated with post-LT mortality within 1 year (odds ratio, 7.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-28.3). No correlation was found between survival after LT and the location or extent of PVT, presence of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, or anticoagulation. LT in patients with ACLF-3 requiring vasopressors yields excellent 1-year survival. LT should be approached cautiously among candidates with ACLF-3 and PVT.