Angiotensin II for the Treatment of Vasodilatory Shock.
Harold M. Szerlip M.D.
Karakkattil, P. P. M., E. P. P. Trudelle-Jackson, H. H. D. Brown, P. D. Hammontree and M. D. Okolo (2017). “Outcomes of botulinum toxin type a for equinovarus deformity in patients with cva: A case series.” Physiother Theory Pract 33(5): 410-419.
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that Botulinum Toxin-A (BTX-A) reduces focal spasticity associated with equinovarus to improve gait in patients poststroke. However, there is little research examining whether gait improvements are maintained after the effectiveness period of BTX-A injections. The purpose of this observational study was to determine whether there was a difference in gait parameters in three patients before BTX-A injection versus four and ten weeks after. CASE SERIES: Three women, ages 63, 60, and 42 postischemic stroke with hemiparesis and equinovarus underwent measurements for: plantar flexor spasticity, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, temporal-spatial gait parameters, and gait endurance. All participants improved in ankle ROM. At week 10, spasticity had returned to initial measurement levels in participants A and C. Base of support and step length symmetry ratios did not improve following injections. Participants A and B, who received physical therapy during the study, showed modest gains in gait endurance and velocity. CONCLUSION: Although BTX-A injections improved spasticity, this improvement did not translate to gait outcomes. Addition of physical therapy interventions appeared to improve gait outcomes in this case series. We suggest future randomized control studies to compare effects of physical therapy alone to BTX-A combined with physical therapy on gait outcomes.