Research Spotlight

Posted June 15th 2017

Clinical Experience With IV Angiotensin II Administration: A Systematic Review of Safety.

Harold M. Szerlip M.D.

Harold M. Szerlip M.D.

Busse, L. W., X. S. Wang, D. M. Chalikonda, K. W. Finkel, A. K. Khanna, H. M. Szerlip, D. Yoo, S. L. Dana and L. S. Chawla (2017). “Clinical experience with iv angiotensin ii administration: A systematic review of safety.” Crit Care Med: 2017 May [Epub ahead of print].

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OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin II is an endogenous hormone with vasopressor and endocrine activities. This is a systematic review of the safety of IV angiotensin II. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane. STUDY SELECTION: Studies in which human subjects received IV angiotensin II were selected whether or not safety was discussed. DATA EXTRACTION: In total, 18,468 studies were screened by two reviewers and one arbiter. One thousand one hundred twenty-four studies, in which 31,281 participants received angiotensin II (0.5-3,780 ng/kg/min), were selected. Data recorded included number of subjects, comorbidities, angiotensin II dose and duration, pressor effects, other physiologic and side effects, and adverse events. DATA SYNTHESIS: The most common nonpressor effects included changes in plasma aldosterone, renal function, cardiac variables, and electrolytes. Adverse events were infrequent and included headache, chest pressure, and orthostatic symptoms. The most serious side effects were exacerbation of left ventricular failure in patients with congestive heart failure and bronchoconstriction. One patient with congestive heart failure died from refractory left ventricular failure. Refractory hypotensive shock was fatal in 55 of 115 patients treated with angiotensin II in case studies, cohort studies, and one placebo-controlled study. One healthy subject died after a pressor dose of angiotensin II was infused continuously for 6 days. No other serious adverse events attributable to angiotensin II were reported. Heterogeneity in study design prevented meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Adverse events associated with angiotensin II were infrequent; however, exacerbation of asthma and congestive heart failure and one fatal cerebral hemorrhage were reported.


Posted June 15th 2017

Chronic periodontitis can affect the levels of potential oral cancer salivary mRNA biomarkers.

Lance E. Oxford M.D.

Lance E. Oxford M.D.

Cheng, Y. L., L. Jordan, H. S. Chen, D. Kang, L. Oxford, J. Plemons, H. Parks and T. Rees (2017). “Chronic periodontitis can affect the levels of potential oral cancer salivary mrna biomarkers.” J Periodontal Res 52(3): 428-437.

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: More than 100 salivary constituents have been found to show levels significantly different in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from those found in healthy controls, and therefore have been suggested to be potential salivary biomarkers for OSCC detection. However, many of these potential OSCC salivary biomarkers are also involved in chronic inflammation, and whether the levels of these biomarkers could be affected by the presence of chronic periodontitis was not known. The objective of this pilot study was therefore to measure the levels of seven previously reported potential OSCC salivary mRNA biomarkers in patients with chronic periodontitis and compare them to levels found in patients with OSCC and healthy controls. The seven salivary mRNAs were interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1beta, dual specificity phosphatase 1, H3 histone family 3A, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1, S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from a total of 105 human subjects from the following four study groups: OSCC; CPNS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, non-smokers); CPS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, smokers); and healthy controls. Levels of each mRNA in patient groups (OSCC or chronic periodontitis) relative to the healthy controls were determined by a pre-amplification reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach with nested gene-specific primers. Results were recorded and analyzed by the Bio-Rad CFX96 Real-Time System. Mean fold changes between each pair of patient vs. control groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni corrections. RESULTS: Only S100P showed significantly higher levels in patients with OSCC compared to both patients with CPNS (p = 0.003) and CPS (p = 0.007). The difference in S100P levels between patients with OSCC and healthy controls was also marginally significant (p = 0.009). There was no significant difference in the levels of salivary IL-8, IL-1beta and dual specificity phosphatase 1 mRNAs between patients with OSCC and patients with CPNS (p = 0.510, 0.058 and 0.078, respectively); no significant difference in levels of salivary ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 and spermine N1-acetyltransferase mRNAs between patients with OSCC and patients with CPS (p = 0.318 and 0.764, respectively); and no significant difference in levels of the H3 histone family 3A mRNA between patients with OSCC and either CPS (p = 0.449) or healthy controls (p = 0.107). CONCLUSIONS: Salivary S100P mRNA could be a reliable biomarker for OSCC detection, regardless of the presence of chronic periodontitis. The presence of chronic periodontitis could significantly affect the levels of the other six mRNAs, and negatively influence reliability for using them as biomarkers for oral cancer detection.


Posted June 15th 2017

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Within Degenerated Aortic Surgical Bioprostheses: PARTNER 2 Valve-in-Valve Registry.

Michael J. Mack M.D.

Michael J. Mack M.D.

Webb, J. G., M. J. Mack, J. M. White, D. Dvir, P. Blanke, H. C. Herrmann, J. Leipsic, S. K. Kodali, R. Makkar, D. C. Miller, P. Pibarot, A. Pichard, L. F. Satler, L. Svensson, M. C. Alu, R. M. Suri and M. B. Leon (2017). “Transcatheter aortic valve implantation within degenerated aortic surgical bioprostheses: Partner 2 valve-in-valve registry.” J Am Coll Cardiol 69(18): 2253-2262.

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BACKGROUND: Early experience with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) within failed bioprosthetic surgical aortic valves has shown that valve-in-valve (VIV) TAVR is a feasible therapeutic option with acceptable acute procedural results. OBJECTIVES: The authors examined 30-day and 1-year outcomes in a large cohort of high-risk patients undergoing VIV TAVR. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic degeneration of surgical aortic bioprostheses at high risk (>/=50% major morbidity or mortality) for reoperative surgery were prospectively enrolled in the multicenter PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) 2 VIV trial and continued access registries. RESULTS: Valve-in-valve procedures were performed in 365 patients (96 initial registry, 269 continued access patients). Mean age was 78.9 +/- 10.2 years, and mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 9.1 +/- 4.7%. At 30 days, all-cause mortality was 2.7%, stroke was 2.7%, major vascular complication was 4.1%, conversion to surgery was 0.6%, coronary occlusion was 0.8%, and new pacemaker insertion was 1.9%. One-year all-cause mortality was 12.4%. Mortality fell from the initial registry to the subsequent continued access registry, both at 30 days (8.2% vs. 0.7%, respectively; p = 0.0001) and at 1 year (19.7% vs. 9.8%, respectively; p = 0.006). At 1 year, mean gradient was 17.6 mm Hg, and effective orifice area was 1.16 cm2, with greater than mild paravalvular regurgitation of 1.9%. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased (50.6% to 54.2%), and mass index decreased (135.7 to 117.6 g/m2), with reductions in both mitral (34.9% vs. 12.7%) and tricuspid (31.8% vs. 21.2%) moderate or severe regurgitation (all p < 0.0001). Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score increased (mean: 43.1 to 77.0) and 6-min walk test distance results increased (mean: 163.6 to 252.3 m; both p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk patients, TAVR for bioprosthetic aortic valve failure is associated with relatively low mortality and complication rates, improved hemodynamics, and excellent functional and quality-of-life outcomes at 1 year.


Posted June 15th 2017

Clinical effectiveness of a pylorus-preserving procedure on total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation.

Bashoo Naziruddin Ph.D.

Bashoo Naziruddin Ph.D.

Shahbazov, R., G. Yoshimatsu, W. Z. Haque, O. S. Khan, G. Saracino, M. C. Lawrence, P. T. Kim, N. Onaca, B. Naziruddin and M. F. Levy (2017). “Clinical effectiveness of a pylorus-preserving procedure on total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation.” Am J Surg 213(6): 1065-1071.

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BACKGROUND: The impact of pylorus preserving procedures (PP) on total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) has not been examined. This study aimed to investigate the clinical impact of the PP on TPIAT. METHODS: The Baylor Simmons Transplant Institute database was queried to identify seventy-three patients who underwent TPIAT from 2006 to 2014. All patients were investigated in postoperative complications, long-term nutritional status, and graft function. RESULTS: Patients with PP did not face worse outcomes in terms of delayed gastric emptying and length of hospital stay. Also, nutritional status and metabolic outcome, such as body weight, serum albumin level, serum vitamin level, HbA1c level, graft survival rate and insulin independent rate, were similar between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical results including the graft function indicated that patients undergoing TPIAT with PP did not amplify surgical complications such as delayed gastric emptying and showed no significant advantage of nutrition and metabolic outcome.


Posted June 15th 2017

The effects of sacubitril/valsartan on coronary outcomes in PARADIGM-HF.

Milton Packer M.D.

Milton Packer M.D.

Mogensen, U. M., L. Kober, S. L. Kristensen, P. S. Jhund, J. Gong, M. P. Lefkowitz, A. R. Rizkala, J. L. Rouleau, V. C. Shi, K. Swedberg, M. R. Zile, S. D. Solomon, M. Packer and J. J. V. McMurray (2017). “The effects of sacubitril/valsartan on coronary outcomes in paradigm-hf.” Am Heart J 188: 35-41.

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BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), are beneficial both in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) and after myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the effects of the angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan, compared with the ACE-I enalapril, on coronary outcomes in PARADIGM-HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effect of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril on the following outcomes: i) the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular (CV) death or HF hospitalization, ii) a pre-defined broader composite including, in addition, MI, stroke, and resuscitated sudden death, and iii) a post hoc coronary composite of CV-death, non-fatal MI, angina hospitalization or coronary revascularization. At baseline, of 8399 patients, 3634 (43.3%) had a prior MI and 4796 (57.1%) had a history of any coronary artery disease. Among all patients, compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the risk of the primary outcome (HR 0.80 [0.73-0.87], P<.001), the broader composite (HR 0.83 [0.76-0.90], P<.001) and the coronary composite (HR 0.83 [0.75-0.92], P<.001). Although each of the components of the coronary composite occurred less frequently in the sacubitril/valsartan group, compared with the enalapril group, only CV death was reduced significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the risk of both the primary endpoint and a coronary composite outcome in PARADIGM-HF. Additional studies on the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on atherothrombotic outcomes in high-risk patients are merited.