Longitudinal Effects of Medical Comorbidities on Functional Outcome and Life Satisfaction After Traumatic Brain Injury: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis of NIDILRR Traumatic Brain Injury Model System Data.
Marie Dahdah Ph.D.
Malec, J. F., J. M. Ketchum, F. M. Hammond, J. D. Corrigan, K. Dams-O’Connor, T. Hart, T. Novack, M. Dahdah, G. G. Whiteneck and J. Bogner (2019). “Longitudinal Effects of Medical Comorbidities on Functional Outcome and Life Satisfaction After Traumatic Brain Injury: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis of NIDILRR Traumatic Brain Injury Model System Data.” J Head Trauma Rehabil Feb 27. [Epub ahead of print].
OBJECTIVE: To explore associations of specific physical and neuropsychiatric medical conditions to motor and cognitive functioning and life satisfaction over the first 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Telephone follow-up through 6 TBI Model System centers. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 404 individuals or proxies with TBI enrolled in the TBI Model System longitudinal study participating in 10-year follow-up. DESIGN: Individual growth curve analysis. MAIN MEASURES: FIM Motor and Cognitive subscales, Satisfaction With Life Scales, and Medical and Mental Health Comorbidities Interview. RESULTS: Hypertension, diabetes, cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, and anxiety negatively affected the trajectory of motor functioning over time. Diabetes, cancers, chronic bronchitis, anxiety, and depression negatively impacted cognitive functioning. Numerous neuropsychiatric conditions (sleep disorder, alcoholism, drug addiction, anxiety, panic attacks, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder), as well as hypertension, liver disease, and cancers, diminished life satisfaction. Other medical conditions had a negative effect on functioning and satisfaction at specific follow-up periods. CONCLUSION: Natural recovery after TBI may include delayed onset of functional decline or early recovery, followed by progressive deterioration, and is negatively affected by medical comorbidities. Results contribute to the growing evidence that TBI is most appropriately treated as a chronic medical condition complicated by a variety of comorbid conditions.