Nutritional Support and Duration of Drainage Recommendations for Endoscopic Internal Drainage: Review of the Literature and Initial Experience.
Steven G. Leeds M.D.
Leeds, S. G., Whitfield, E. P., Ogola, G. and Ward, M. A. (2022). “Nutritional Support and Duration of Drainage Recommendations for Endoscopic Internal Drainage: Review of the Literature and Initial Experience.” Obes Surg.
INTRODUCTION: Anastomotic leaks following foregut surgery pose a difficult scenario for surgeons. While definitive surgical options are more invasive and may result in diversion requiring subsequent surgeries, endoscopic management of these leaks has been shown to work as an alternative platform for management. An evolving option is endoscopic internal drainage. We have reviewed our experience using endoscopic internal drainage and report our outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institution review board approved prospectively gathered database was used to identify all patients undergoing endoscopic internal drainage following esophageal and gastric leaks. Patient demographics, sentinel operation causing the leak, and outcomes of therapy were collected. The rate of healing and complications with the drainage catheter in place were the primary endpoints. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were identified (5 male, 11 female) that underwent endoscopic internal drainage with a mean age of 48 and mean BMI of 30.8. Overall success rate was 69% (11/16), where 4 patients required a definitive surgery, and one healed with endoluminal vacuum therapy. Of the 4 failures, 1 patient required esophagojejunostomy, 2 patients required a fistulojejunostomy, and one required a partial gastrectomy. A total of 12 patients (75%) had a prior endoscopic procedure that was unsuccessful. The mean duration of drainage catheter in place was 48 days. While the catheter was in place, 4 patients were allowed minimal PO intake in conjunction with total parenteral nutrition or tube feeds. The rest of the patients were strict NPO with other means of nutrition. There were no complications with the drainage catheters and no deaths. CONCLUSION: Leaks following esophagogastric surgery are difficult to manage; however, endoscopic internal drainage has been shown to be effective. Duration of the technique should be around 6 to 8 weeks with nutritional support guided by the comfort of the managing clinician.