Predicting renal recovery after liver transplant with severe pretransplant subacute kidney injury: The impact of warm ischemia time.
Klein, J. A., S. A. Gonzalez, B. V. Fischbach, A. F. Yango, A. Rajagopal, K. M. Rice, M. Saim, Y. M. Barri, L. B. Melton, G. B. Klintmalm and A. Chandrakantan (2016). “Routine ultrasonography surveillance of native kidneys for renal cell carcinoma in kidney transplant candidates.” Clin Transplant 30(8): 946-953.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a high incidence in the kidney transplant population and annual surveillance detects these tumors early in their natural history. Minimal guidelines exist regarding RCC surveillance in ESRD patients awaiting transplant. A retrospective review of our kidney transplant database examined the outcomes of annual ultrasonographic surveillance during initial kidney transplant evaluation and upon annual reassessment. Of 2642 patients listed for transplant, 145 patients were found to have masses during initial kidney transplant evaluation or annual imaging consistent with new complex cystic disease or RCC. A total of 71 patients had RCC identified, with 52 found on initial kidney transplant evaluation and 19 identified on annual surveillance. Male gender and African-American race were independently associated with RCC (P<.05). RCC was detected a median of 2.0 years after listing (two annual ultrasonography studies). Patients with complex cysts were more likely to undergo transplantation (48.7%) compared to patients with RCC (21.1%; P<.001). There was no significant difference in survival between RCC patients and those found to have complex cystic disease, suggesting incidental RCC can be diagnosed early in the natural history and at a curable stage through implementation of a biennial surveillance program.