Research Spotlight

Baylor Health Sciences Library brings to you each month the latest published research from the Baylor Scott & White community. Each newly published article features the researcher, the abstract, and link to the full text. For information on including your own research, please contact John Fullinwider, john.fullinwider@baylorhealth.edu. 214-828-8989.


Posted February 15th 2018

Sacral examination in spinal cord injury: Is it really needed?

Monica M. Bennett Ph.D.

Monica M. Bennett Ph.D.

Hamilton, R., S. Kirshblum, S. Sikka, L. Callender, M. Bennett and P. Prajapati (2018). “Sacral examination in spinal cord injury: Is it really needed?” J Spinal Cord Med: Jan 29: 1-6. [Epub ahead of print].

Full text of this article.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if a self-report measure of S4-5 motor and sensory function in patients with chronic SCI accurately predicts sacral examination results. DESIGN: Prospective, single-blinded self-report survey compared with sacral exam. SETTING: Outpatient SCI clinic. PARTICIPANTS: 116 patients aged 18+ with chronic SCI > 6 months who have undergone sacral exam. INTERVENTIONS: The survey included demographic/clinical and sacral function information such as light tough (LT), pinprick sensation (PP), deep anal pressure (DAP) and voluntary anal contraction (VAC). Survey results and sacral exam were compared and stratified by the patient’s American Spinal Cord Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) category. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sacral self-report survey, AIS examination. RESULTS: Mean age was 41.3 +/- 14.4 years with majority male (69%) and Caucasian (71.6%). Overall, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) ranged between 48% (VAC) to 73% (DAP) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) between 92% (VAC) to 100% (LT). AIS-A had NPV of 100% across all categories, and AIS-D had PPV of 100% across all categories. CONCLUSION: Patient report of sacral sparing can predict negative sensation in patients with AIS-A and predict positive sensation in persons with AIS-D. Overall, the self-report of sacral sparing of motor and sensory function is not predictive enough to rely on for accurate classification.


Posted February 15th 2018

Major Adverse Renal and Cardiac Events Following Coronary Angiography and Cardiac Surgery.

Peter McCullough M.D.

Peter McCullough M.D.

Tecson, K. M., D. Brown, J. W. Choi, G. Feghali, G. V. Gonzalez-Stawinski, B. L. Hamman, R. Hebeler, S. R. Lander, B. Lima, S. Potluri, J. M. Schussler, R. C. Stoler, C. Velasco and P. A. McCullough (2018). “Major Adverse Renal and Cardiac Events Following Coronary Angiography and Cardiac Surgery.” Ann Thorac Surg. Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print].

Full text of this article.

BACKGROUND: Patients at high risk for developing post-procedural complications may receive iodixanol, an iso-osmolar contrast, during coronary angiography to minimize the risk of renal toxicity. For those who additionally require cardiac surgery, the wait-time between angiography and surgery may be a modifiable factor capable of mitigating poor surgical outcomes; however, there have been inconsistsent reports regarding the optimal wait-time. We sought to determine the effects of wait time between angiogram and cardiac surgery, as well as contrast induced acute injury (CI-AKI) on the development of major adverse renal and cardiac events (MARCE). METHODS: We merged datasets to identify adults who underwent coronary angiography with iodixanol and subsequent cardiac surgery. RESULTS: Of 965 patients, 126 (13.1%) developed CI-AKI; 133 (13.8%) experienced MARCE within 30 days and 253 (26.2%) within 1 year of surgery. After adjusting for CI-AKI, age, and Thakar acute renal failure score, the effect of wait-time lost significance for the full cohort, but remained for the 654 who had coronary artery bypass grafting. Those with coronary artery bypass grafting within 1 day of coronary angiography had an approximate 2-fold increase in risk of MARCE (30-day hazard ratio =2.13, 95% confidence interval 1.16-3.88, p=0.014; 1-year hazard ratio =2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.32, 3.23, p = 0.002) compared to those who waited 5 or more days. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who suffered CI-AKI and had cardiac surgery within 1 day of angiography had increased risk of MARCE.


Posted February 15th 2018

Accuracy of four mononucleotide-repeat markers for the identification of DNA mismatch-repair deficiency in solid tumors.E

Ajay Goel Ph.D.E

Ajay Goel Ph.D.

Takehara, Y., T. Nagasaka, A. Nyuya, T. Haruma, J. Haraga, Y. Mori, K. Nakamura, T. Fujiwara, C. R. Boland and A. Goel (2018). “Accuracy of four mononucleotide-repeat markers for the identification of DNA mismatch-repair deficiency in solid tumors.” J Transl Med 16(1): 5.

Full text of this article.

BACKGROUND: To screen tumors with microsatellite instability (MSI) arising due to DNA mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR), a panel of five quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide-repeat markers amplified in a multiplex PCR (Pentaplex) are commonly used. In spite of its several strengths, the pentaplex assay is not robust at detecting the loss of MSH6-deficiency (dMSH6). In order to overcome this challenge, we designed this study to develop and optimize a panel of four quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide-repeat markers (Tetraplex) for identifying solid tumors with dMMR, especially dMSH6. METHODS: To improve the sensitivity for tumors with dMMR, we established a quasi-monomorphic variant range (QMVR) of 3-4 bp for the four Tetraplex markers. Thereafter, to confirm the accuracy of this assay, we examined 317 colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens, comprising of 105 dMMR [45 MutL homolog (MLH)1-deficient, 45 MutS protein homolog (MSH)2-deficient, and 15 MSH6-deficient tumors] and 212 MMR-proficient (pMMR) tumors as a test set. In addition, we analyzed a cohort of 138 endometrial cancers (EC) by immunohistochemistry to determine MMR protein expression and validation of our new MSI assay. RESULTS: Using the criteria of >/= 1 unstable markers as MSI-positive tumor, our assay resulted in a sensitivity of 97.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 91.9-99.0%] for dMMR, and a specificity of 95.3% (95% CI = 91.5-97.4%) for pMMR CRC specimens. Among the 138 EC specimens, 41 were dMMR according to immunohistochemistry. Herein, our Tetraplex assay detected dMMR tumors with a sensitivity of 92.7% (95% CI = 80.6-97.5%) and a specificity of 97.9% (95% CI = 92.8-99.4%) for pMMR tumors. With respect to tumors with dMSH6, in the CRC-validation set, Tetraplex detected dMSH6 tumors with a sensitivity of 86.7% (13 of 15 dMSH6 CRCs), which was subsequently validated in the EC test set as well (sensitivity, 75.0%; 6 of 8 dMSH6 ECs). CONCLUSIONS: Our newly optimized Tetraplex system will help offer a robust and highly sensitive assay for the identification of dMMR in solid tumors.


Posted February 15th 2018

Prevalence, Presentation and Treatment of ‘Balloon Undilatable’ Chronic Total Occlusions: Insights from a Multicenter US Registry.

James W. Choi M.D.

James W. Choi M.D.

Tajti, P., D. Karmpaliotis, K. Alaswad, C. Toma, J. W. Choi, F. A. Jaffer, A. H. Doing, M. Patel, E. Mahmud, B. Uretsky, A. Karatasakis, J. Karacsonyi, B. A. Danek, B. V. Rangan, S. Banerjee, I. Ungi and E. S. Brilakis (2018). “Prevalence, Presentation and Treatment of ‘Balloon Undilatable’ Chronic Total Occlusions: Insights from a Multicenter US Registry.” Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. Jan 23. [Epub ahead of print].

Full text of this article.

BACKGROUND: The prevalence, treatment and outcomes of balloon undilatable chronic total occlusions (CTOs) have received limited study. METHODS: We examined the prevalence, clinical and angiographic characteristics, and procedural outcomes of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) for balloon undilatable CTOs in a contemporary multicenter US registry. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2017 data on balloon undilatable lesions were available for 425 consecutive CTO PCIs in 415 patients in whom guidewire crossing was successful: 52 of 425 CTOs were balloon undilatable (12%). Mean patient age was 65 +/- 10 years and most patients were men (84%). Patients with balloon undilatable CTOs were more likely to be diabetic (67 vs. 41%, P < 0.001) and have heart failure (44 vs. 28%, P = 0.027). Balloon undilatable CTOs were longer (40 mm [interquartile range, IQR 20-50] vs. 30 [IQR 15-40], P = 0.016), more likely to have moderate/severe calcification (87 vs. 54%, P < 0.001), and had higher J-CTO score (3.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 2.5 +/- 1.3, P < 0.001) and PROGRESS-CTO complications score (3.9 +/- 1.7 vs. 3.1 +/- 2.0, P < 0.005). They were associated with lower technical and procedural success (92 vs. 98%, P = 0.024; and 88 vs. 96%, P = 0.034, respectively) and higher risk for in-hospital major adverse events (8 vs. 2%, P = 0.008) due to higher perforation rates. The most frequent treatments for balloon undilatable CTOs were high pressure balloon inflations (64%), rotational atherectomy (31%), laser (21%), and cutting balloons (15%). CONCLUSIONS: Balloon undilatable CTOs are common and are associated with lower success and higher complication rates. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02061436, Prospective Global Registry for the Study of Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention (PROGRESS CTO).


Posted February 15th 2018

Sex-Specific Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With the SAPIEN 3 Valve: Insights From the PARTNER II S3 High-Risk and Intermediate-Risk Cohorts.

Michael J. Mack M.D.

Michael J. Mack M.D.

Szerlip, M., S. Gualano, E. Holper, J. J. Squiers, J. M. White, D. Doshi, M. R. Williams, R. T. Hahn, J. G. Webb, L. G. Svensson, A. J. Kirtane, D. J. Cohen, P. S. Douglas, M. C. Alu, A. Crowley, E. M. Tuzcu, R. R. Makkar, H. C. Herrmann, V. Babaliaros, V. H. Thourani, M. B. Leon, S. K. Kodali and M. J. Mack (2018). “Sex-Specific Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With the SAPIEN 3 Valve: Insights From the PARTNER II S3 High-Risk and Intermediate-Risk Cohorts.” JACC Cardiovasc Interv 11(1): 13-20.

Full text of this article.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify sex-specific outcomes of intermediate risk patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement with the SAPIEN 3 valve. BACKGROUND: A survival difference has been observed in women as compared with men in inoperable and high-risk patients receiving early-generation balloon-expandable valves for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Whether a sex-specific outcome difference persists with newer-generation valves and in lower-risk patients is unknown. METHODS: The PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) II S3 trial included high-risk (HR) (Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score >8% or heart team determination) and intermediate-risk (IR) (Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score 4% to 8% or heart team determination) patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who were treated with TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 valve. Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes at 30 days and 1 year were compared by sex. RESULTS: Between October 2013 and December 2014, 1,661 patients were enrolled: 583 were HR (338 men, 245 women) and 1,078 were IR (666 men, 412 women). In both cohorts, women were more likely than men to be frail (22% vs. 13%; p < 0.001), but less likely to have comorbid conditions of renal insufficiency, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Women were more likely to receive